Dispersions of colloidal particles in cholesteric liquid crystals form an unusual solid by stabilizing a network of linear defects under tension in the ideal layered structure of the cholesteric. The large length scales of the cholesteric liquid crystals allowed direct observation of the network structure, and its properties were correlated with rheological measurements of elasticity. This system serves as a model for a class of solids formed when particles are mixed with layered materials such as thermotropic and lyotropic smectic liquid crystals and block copolymers.
The character of wave transport through a strongly scattering medium, excited by a pulsed plane-wave source, is investigated as a function of sample thickness over the range from about one to 13 mean free paths. To examine the behavior theoretically, we perform a first-principles calculation of both the frequency correlation function of the transmitted field and the time-domain profile of the transmitted intensity. These quantities are investigated experimentally using an ultrasonic technique, which allows us to separate the ballistic and scattered components of the total transmitted field, and hence to measure the scattered component unambiguously in thin samples. For sample thicknesses greater than about four mean free paths, we find good agreement between our theory, the diffusion approximation, and our experimental: data for both the frequency correlation function and the intensity time profile. In thinner samples, there are systematic differences between theory and experiment. To characterize the transition from ballistic to diffusive behavior in thin samples, we focus on the arrival time of the peak in the scattered component of the transmitted intensity; unexpectedly we find that the scattered peak arrival time exhibits an abrupt crossover between ballistic and diffusive behavior when the ratio of sample thickness to mean free path, L/l, is approximately equal to 3. Excellent agreement is obtained between our theory and experiment for this crossover behavior over the entire range of sample thicknesses investigated. [S1063-651X(99)12009-9].
Colloidal particles can form unexpected two-dimensional ordered colloidal crystals when they interact with surfactants of the opposite charge. Coulomb interactions Lead to self-limited adsorption of the particles on the surface of vesicles formed by the surfactants. The adsorbed particles form ordered but fluid rafts on the vesicle surfaces, and these ultimately form robust two-dimensional crystals. This use of attractive Coulomb interaction between colloidal particles and surfactant structures offers a potential new route to self-assembly of ordered colloidal structures.
Aggregation mechanisms of emulsions at high initial volume fractions (phi(0) >. 0.01) is studied using light scattering. We use emulsion droplets which can be made unstable towards aggregation by a temperature quench. For deep quenches and 0.1 > phi(0) > 0.01, the aggregation mechanism is identified as diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA). An ordering of the clusters, which is reflected by a peak in the scattering intensity, is shown to result from the intercluster separation, exhibiting different scaling than that observed at lower volume fractions. This manifests an increasing similarity to spinodal decomposition observed as phi(0) is increased. For bo > 0.1 and shallow quenches, different mechanisms, closer to spinodal decomposition, are observed. These results allow the subtle boundaries between DLCA and spinodal decomposition to be explored.
The diffusive transport of multiply scattered ultrasonic waves is investigated experimentally and theoretically in a simple system consisting of glass beads in water. New experimental results are presented using a novel method for measuring the frequency correlation function of the transmitted acoustic field. The wave diffusion coefficient D is found to vary strongly with frequency when the wavelength is comparable to the size of the scatterers, reflecting a substantial slowing down of wave propagation when the scattering is strongest. The results are interpreted using a model based on a spectral function approach that gives good agreement with experiment. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Times Cited: 7 9th International Conference on Phonon Scattering in Condensed Matter (PHONONS 98) Jul 26-31, 1998 Lancaster, england Engn & Phys Sci Res Council; European Commiss; Int Union Pure & Appl Phys; US Army European Res Off; Lancaster Univ Dept Phys; Inst Phys; European Phys Soc
Using rheometry and light scattering, we have studied the viscoelasticity of gels formed by the kinetically arrested phase separation in an emulsion-polymer mixture; to prevent the gels From collapsing under their own weight, we have used an isopycnic solvent. At constant osmotic pressure (set by the polymer concentration) and droplet volume fractions phi well, above the gelation transition, we find the elastic modulus to increase roughly linearly with phi, indicating an entropic elasticity based on the cluster packing.
We report on experiments on the rheology of gels formed by diffusion-limited aggregation of neutrally buoyant colloidal particles. These gels form very weak solids, with the elastic modulus, G'(omega), larger than the loss modulus, G "(omega), and with both G'(omega) and G "(omega) exhibiting only a very weak frequency dependence. Upon small but finite strains gamma < 0.45 the elastic modulus increases roughly exponentially with gamma(2). We explain the observed strain hardening with the highly nonlinear elastic response of the rigid backbone of the gel to elongational deformation.
The viscoelasticity of actin networks is probed over an extended range of frequencies using microrheology techniques, where the thermal motion of small beads in the network is measured using diffusing-wave spectroscopy. Despite large sample-to-sample variations, the data exhibit an unexpected scaling behavior and can all be collapsed onto a single master curve, indicative of a surprising universality in the elastic properties. The scaled data provide a precise measure of the average behavior of the actin networks and indicate that at high frequencies omega, the shear modulus, increases as omega(3/4).[S0031-9007(99)08465-3].
We describe a method for measuring the rheological properties of complex materials by embedding small probe particles within the material and monitoring the thermal motion of the probe using either light scattering or particle tracking. If the probe particle is large compared to the characteristic length scales of the surrounding material, then its motion will reflect the average behavior of the medium. This can be interpreted in terms of the frequency dependent elastic modulus of the medium, providing a simple, non intrusive method for measuring rheological properties. Examples are shown of the measurement of the actin networks using this method, and an unexpected scaling behavior is observed.
Times Cited: 0 8th Tohwa-University International Symposium on Slow Dynamics in Complex Systems Nov 09-14, 1998 Fukuoka, japan
The forces and viscosity between calcium benzene sulfonate surfactant-coated mica surfaces in various hydrocarbon liquids containing a polyamine-functionalized hydrocarbon polymer (M-W approximate to 8000) have been measured using the surface forces apparatus technique. The polymer is found to adsorb to the substrate surfaces by displacing the surfactant layer, and to produce forces that are monotonically repulsive. The forces have a maximum range of 50-100 nm (>3R(H)), indicating that tails play a particularly important role in the interaction of this relatively low molecular weight polymer. The forces become steeply repulsive below about 10 nm (similar to 0.6R(H)), at which point a "hardwall" repulsion comes in that can sustain pressures greater than 100 atm. Thin-film viscosity measurements indicate that the far-field positions of the slipping planes Delta(H) depend on the shear rate, showing that significant shear thinning/thickening effects occur within the outermost tail regions of the adsorbed layers during shear. The position of the slipping plane, or hydrodynamic layer thickness Delta(H), varies from 0.6R(H) to 2R(H) away from each surface (mica and surfactant-coated mica surfaces). Beyond the hydrodynamic layer the far-field fluid viscosity is the same as that of the bulk polymer solution. At separations below D = 2 Delta(H) the viscosity increases as each polymer layer is compressed. The static forces exhibited various time- and history-dependent effects, which further indicate that a number of different relaxation/equilibration processes are operating simultaneously in this complex multicomponent system. The results reveal that the interactions of tails of functionally adsorbed polymers play a more important role than previously thought. This is especially true in this study where the adsorbed polymers are of low molecular weight and where the tails may represent the largest fraction of interacting segments.
A liquid-glass transition was observed experimentally in a new system, an oil-in-water emulsion. Dynamic light scattering was employed to obtain the intermediate scattering function f(q,t) for a range of volume fractions phi and scattering vectors q. The results are compared with predictions of the mode coupling theory. While the usual idealized version of the theory provides accurate fits to the data on the Liquid side of the transition, fits for volume fractions near the transition and in the glass phase were found to require the extended version, presumably due to an additional decay mechanism related to the deformability of the oil droplets. [S1063-651X(99)04901-6].
We use a charge coupled device (CCD) camera and a multi-tau software correlator to measure dynamic light scattering (DLS) at many angles simultaneously, from 0.07 degrees to 5.1 degrees. Real-time autocorrelation functions are calculated by averaging both over time and over CCD pixels, each corresponding to a different coherence area. In order to cover the wide spectrum of decay times associated with the large range of accessible angles, we adopt the multitau scheme, where the correlator channel spacing is quasilogarithmic rather than linear. A detailed analysis is presented of the effects of dark noise, stray light, and finite pixel area, and methods to correct the data for these effects are developed, making a CCD camera a viable alternative for a DLS detector. We test the apparatus on a dilute suspension of colloidal particles. Very good agreement is found between the particle radius derived from the CCD data, and that obtained with a conventional DLS setup. (C) 1999 American Institute of Physics. [S0034-6748(99)05008-X].
A positively charged, mixed bilayer vesicle in the presence of negatively charged surfaces (for example, colloidal particles) can spontaneously partition into an adhesion zone of definite area and another zone that repels additional negative objects, Although the membrane itself has nonnegative charge in the repulsive zone, negative counterions on the interior of the vesicle spontaneously aggregate there and present a net negative charge to the exterior. Beyond the fundamental result that oppositely charged objects can repel, this mechanism helps to explain recent experiments on surfactant vesicles.
Ansari, R. R. ; Hovenac, E. A. ; Sankaran, S. ; Koudelka, J. M. ; Weitz, D. A. ; Cipelletti, L. ; Segre, P. N. ; ElGenk, M. S.Physics of colloids in space experiment. In Space Technology and Applications International Forum - 1999, Pts One and Two; 1999; Vol. 458, pp. 108-113.Abstract
The Physics of Colloids in Space (PCS) experiment was proposed by investigators Weitz and Pusey. It is scheduled to be conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) in the year 2000. The broader objective is to study physics of colloidal particles dispersed in a fluid. This includes nucleation and growth of colloidal crystals and behavior of binary colloidal crystal alloys. The structure and properties of colloidal particles with attractive interactions (depletion interactions) induced by the addition of a non-adsorbing polymer, behavior of large-scale fractal aggregates, and gels will also be studied. A multi-purpose light scattering apparatus will be employed in these studies. This apparatus is being designed and built by the NASA Lewis Research Center and is capable of performing dynamic light scattering (DLS), static light scattering (SLS), and Bragg scattering experiments. The flight experiment hardware will be located on the EXPRESS rack mounted in the ISS US Laboratory Module. It is anticipated that the long-term benefit of this research will be to fabricate novel materials that may have applications in opto-electronic display technology. Materials could be fabricated that could act as light switches and could control the direction or color of the displayed light.