Effective cancer therapies often demand delivery of combinations of drugs to inhibit multidrug resistance through synergism, and the development of multifunctional nanovehicles with enhanced drug loading and delivery efficiency for combination therapy is currently a major challenge in nanotechnology. However, such combinations are more challenging to administer than single drugs and can require multipronged approaches to delivery. In addition to being stable and biodegradable, vehicles for such therapies must be compatible with both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs, and release drugs at sustained therapeutic levels. Here, we report synthesis of porous silicon nanoparticles conjugated with gold nanorods [composite nanoparticles (cNPs)] and encapsulate them within a hybrid polymersome using double-emulsion templates on a microfluidic chip to create a versatile nanovehicle. This nanovehicle has high loading capacities for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs, and improves drug delivery efficiency by accumulating at the tumor after i.v. injection in mice. Importantly, a triple-drug combination suppresses breast tumors by 94% and 87% at total dosages of 5 and 2.5 mg/kg, respectively, through synergy. Moreover, the cNPs retain their photothermal properties, which can be used to significantly inhibit multidrug resistance upon near-infrared laser irradiation. Overall, this work shows that our nanovehicle has great potential as a drug codelivery nanoplatform for effective combination therapy that is adaptable to other cancer types and to molecular targets associated with disease progression.